Scientific and technological supervision of the design and construction activities
Scientific and technical supervision in the sphere of design and construction implies the entire range of scientific, expert, control, information analyses, and legal and institutional procedures being carried out by NIIOSP in order to ensure quality and safety in view of surveying, designing and construction activities as well as subsequent safe operation of the buildings and structures.
NIIOSP was a pioneer among other Moscow based construction institutions to commence rendering services related the complex scientific and research supervision of the bases, foundations and underground construction activities for the most prominent and unique urban development landmarks.
The scope of the scientific and technical supervision tasks to be dealt with immediate participation of the NIIOSP specialists during the entire construction process from surveying through commissioning a building into operation includes the ones listed below:
- Concept analysis of the underground space development in conjunction with other urban facilities and infrastructures
- Expert evaluation of the geotechnical investigation findings
- Forecast of changes in the geotechnical and hydrogeological conditions likely to occur due to the construction activities
- Forecast of construction effects impacting the existing development
- Justification of the needs and selection of the types of protective measures
- Computational analysis beyond the usual framework of regulatory documents
- Interactive design inclusive of the juxtaposition of the forecast outcome in view of interaction of the asset under development and the environmental situation with the monitoring findings, and whenever applicable initiation of corrective decisions
Listed below are some of the most prominent Moscow projects in the development of which NIIOSP has taken part and is still involved with regard to the scientific and technical supervision of the design and construction activites:
1. Trade & Entertainment Complex Okhotny Ryad
Trade & Entertainment complex Okhotny Ryad at Manezhnaya Square is the Europe’s largest (to date of its completion) underground civil construction facility. Its area in plan is over 57K m2 with the maximum depth of the substructure reaching 17 m.
The construction site featured severe geo-engineering, hydrogeological and geotechnical conditions (4 underground water aquifers, the 3rd metro line tunnels in operation, and buildings and structures of the heritage significance).
By virtue of the City of Moscow Government resolution back in 1994 the party of NIIOSP was the first institution in our country to be assigned a leading role in the integrated scientific and technical supervision of the design and construction activities in view of the Okhotny Ryad development.
Below are the challenges met while performing the scientific and technical supervision:
- Synthesis and analysis of the geo-engineering surveying activities and recommendations associated with auxiliary investigation into the soil properties
- Forecast of changes in the hydrogeological situation at the site
- Elaboration of measures to preserve the existing hydrogeological conditions
- Performance and structural analysis of the pit retaining structures in connection with the work processing, and elaboration of the recommendations in view of installation thereof
- Numerical modelling of the stress-strain condition of the soil body, forecast of the deformations likely to occur in the adjacent buildings and structures
- Establishment of the on-site monitoring system comprising the pit retaining structures regular observations as well as the existing buildings and metro tunnels
- Environmental research and protection.
2. Central core of the Moscow City IBC (Moscow International Business Centre)
The largest foundation pit with the depth reaching 24 m.
The underground complex in Sections 5, 6, 7, 8 embraces three metro stations and a four-level underground part.
The Institute’s role is the scientific and technical supervision of the design and construction activities which includes monitoring to be carried out at the construction site.
3. Moscow Marriage Registration Hall with the underground parking lot in Sections 2 and 3 of the Moscow City IBC (Multifunctional complex of non-residential buildings)
This civil construction project comprises the marriage registration hall, shopping centre and the office tower. The office tower is a business centre of 45 overground storeys and a 4-level podium structure (stylobate). The marriage registration hall and the shopping centre are both low-level buildings.
The Institute carried out the expert assessment of the geo-engineering survey findings, calculations and design solutions in part of the foundations and pit retaining structures. Technical supervision of the activities associated with the installation and testing of the augured piles was performed; and the construction impact onto the neighboring sections of the Moscow City BIC and resulting from the project development activities was assessed.
4. Transport Terminal buildings in Section 11 of the Moscow City IBC
The complex of the Transport Terminal Buildings comprises 30- and 40-storey office blocks and a 16-storey hotel building. The buildings positioned in Section 11 are joined together by a 7-level underground space with its depth reaching 27 m and are reserved for the car park, retail areas, mini-metro platforms, etc.
NIIOSP carried out the expert assessment of the foundation analysis in view of the Transport Terminal buildings and came forward with a forecast of the impact from the development of Section 11 onto the adjacent buildings, and elaborated the geotechnical monitoring programme. The test programmes and technical supervision programmes were drafted in view of the augured piles and ground anchors installation.
5. Aqua Park Complex with Hotel/Office block and Apartments in Section 4 of the Moscow City IBC
The Asset under construction is free-standing Aqua Park premises and a high-rising building of 64 storeys envisioned to accommodate Hotel/Office block the substructure of which is embedded upto the depth of 15 m. The pile foundation designed to support the high-rising building is a pile field consolidated by a pile grid slab of 4,5 m in thickness. The concrete of Class B60 is used for the pilework whereas it is Class B50 for the foundation slab. The design envisions higher loads to be transmitted onto the piles, namely 1550 – 2240 kN.
In course of the Institute’s participation in the scientific and technical supervision, the calculation analysis was done as well as the expert assessment of the design solutions for the foundations of Hotel/Office block, validation of the procedural regulations and construction method statement for the installation of the auger piles and the test programme thereof, forecasting of the new construction impact onto the existing development; and subsequently the geotechnical monitoring programme was elaborated.
6. Tverskoy Transport interchange and Leisure centre (TLC) with the underground four-level parking garage
Tverskoy TLC is of a complex configuration in plan and its total area exceeds 70 sq. m2 with the utmost depth reaching 22 m. The area reveals constraint construction conditions, and its location is very proximate to the existing buildings, main transport routes and three metro stations.
In course of the scientific and technical supervision activities performance, NIIOSP carried out an expert assessment of the design materials inclusive of the calculations and design solutions for the pit retaining structures and the substructures foundations and forecast of the change in the hydrogeological conditions of the groundwaters; and the related geotechnical monitoring programme was drafted.
7. Moscow Manezh, the Central Exhibition Hall
The restoration project to re-construct the building of the Central Exhibition Hall Manezh along with its heritage constituent regarding the building outlook rehabilitation envisioned a construction of a 2-level underground parking under some part the building.
Within the framework of the scientific and technical supervision of the activities related to rehabilitation and re-construction of the building original facades, the NIIOSP team performed the activities as follows:
- Underpinning of the foundations of the preserved walls to ensure further execution of the activities related to the substructure development;
- Excavation support and bracing;
- Work out of the preventive measures to secure the Central Exhibition Hall Manezh and Alexandrovsky Sad grounds against the groundwater inflow.
8. Gagarinsky Tunnel of the Third Transport Ring
The road segment of the Third Transport Ring Road in the area of Gagarin Square is of an underground type and runs through a tunnel which is partially overlaps in plan with Leninsky Prospekt metro station.
The lower structure of the road in the tunnel right above the premises of the metro station forms a so called subterrain bridge supported by the piles of 2 m in diameter and 60 m in length.
The scientific and technical supervision of the design and construction activities related to the construction of this unique facility, namely the subterrain bridge, was carried out by the party of NIIOSP.
Taking into consideration the construction works technology and its sequence, the structural analysis calculations in view of the bridge development were done, procedural regulations to outline the course of activities for the bored piers installation were worked out as well as the geotechnical monitoring was carried out.
9. Underground complex at Paveletskaya Station Square
The multipurpose complex at Paveletskaya Station Square is a multilevel underground structure featuring a mezzanine level.
The complex foot-print area is over 30K m2, and if studied in plan it partially overlaps the zone within which Paveletskaya metro station is located.
The structural protection of the buildings and structures located with the underground complex construction impact zone was carried out involving first and foremost the installation of the outer walls of the structure following the wall-in-trench method elaborated in-house by NIIOSP.
The scope of the scientific and technical supervision activities includes but is not limited to the following ones:
- technical inspection and monitoring of the buildings and structures current status (those within the boundaries of the construction impact zone);
- assessment of the construction impact from the underground complex development onto the existing building and structures.
10. The Moskva Hotel
The project in view of the Moskva Hotel rehabilitation involves the construction of the two- and four-level underground premises.
The area likely to be affected by the geotechnical activities at the rehabilitation site is a group of buildings and structures both of heritage significance and new development with the City of Moscow Central District inclusive but not limited to such buildings as the State Duma, the State Historical Museum, Trade & Entertainment Complex Okhotny Ryad, etc.
Arising from the necessity to accomplish the rehabilitation activities, the Institute elaborated and implemented the geotechnical monitoring programmes and the programmes which monitor the area hydrogeological situation.
Likewise, the deformation forecasts were done for the foundations of the building to be restored as well as for the foundations of the buildings and structures within the adjacent development, and the assumptions were generated for the likely changes in the hydrogeological situation of the site.
Additionally, the protective measures to secure the site against the groundwater were elaborated.
11. The Ritz Carlton Hotel
The development of the Ritz Carlton Hotel building of a variable height (form 8 to 11 storeys) and underground parking was achieved by means of a top-down technique at the site initially allotted for and housing the Intourist Hotel.
A group of heritage buildings turned out to be within the construction influence (the Ermolova Moscow Theater is one of them) as a result of the geotechnical activities in course of the hotel construction.
Within the scope of the scientific and technical supervision over the hotel construction, the party of NIIOSP designed the foundations underpinning and shoring at the contact surface of foundation-soil for the theatre building.